People and Power: Electricity Sector Reforms and the Poor in Europe and Central Asia, Pagina 419
World Bank, 2007 - 227 pagini
The debate on how to conduct pro-poor reforms of utilities frequently condemns tariff-based subsidies as socially regressive. But the empirical insights on household behavior and electricity consumption patterns in this book reveal that, in ECA, where access to utilities is almost universal, the erosion of tariff based subsidies has disproportionately affected the poor, while direct transfers through social benefit systems have often been inadequately targeted. The book suggests alternative strategies for achieving cost-recovery in the electricity sector in a socially and politically acceptable manner, providing lessons that are equally relevant for other utilities and regions.
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Powers Reforms and the Problems
Empirical Estimates of Price and Income Elasticity
Using Poverty and Social Impact Analysis
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Affordability analysis approach areas Armenia average Azerbaijan Baku benefits better bills Bottom 20 budget calculations chapter collections companies consumers cost cost recovery countries customers demand direct distribution district heating economic effects efficiency elasticity electricity consumption energy estimated expenditures factors figure findings fuels Georgia groups higher households impact important improved income indicators investments Kyrgyz Republic less levels losses lower means measures meters mitigating Moldova month na na na nonpoor Note options particularly payment percent percentage political poor poverty privatization produce rates received reduced reform region reliable reported result rising rural sector service quality share significant social Source spend subsidies substitutes suggests supply survey Table tariff increases Tbilisi tion transfers Union Fenosa urban utility welfare wood World Bank